James Beverlin Ramsey, Worthy To Be Had "In Everlasting Remembrance"

Mark Harrell, Sr., is an independent scholar in Chesapeake, Virginia and a member of the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA).

Pastor James Beverlin Ramsey, a Presbyterian minister, was born near Elkton in Cecil County, Maryland, on May 20, 1814. When he was six years of age, his father passed away, leaving him to the sole care and education of his mother. She was a woman of remarkable wisdom, strength, and godliness, and the two were close until her death, which came not long before his own. When James was fourteen years old, he made his public profession of faith in Jesus Christ. He did not know when he became a child of God, though his mother thought he showed evidence of being a Christian when his father died.[1]

Ramsay completed his education at Lafayette College on September 21, 1836, achieving the Valedictorian of the first graduating class.[2] That same year he commenced his studies at Princeton Theological Seminary, and after completion of the standard three-year curriculum, he concluded the fourth year in the study of theology and the original Scripture languages. One of his teachers with whom he became personally familiar, Dr. J. Addison Alexander, a renowned linguist, said that when Ramsey exited Seminary, he was competent to instruct any class at the institution.[3]

Following seminary, Ramsay was ordained by the Second New York Presbytery on February 2, 1841, and installed pastor of First Presbyterian Church, West Farms, New York.[4] He resigned in 1845 to serve as a missionary to the American Indians. On June 1, 1846, he assumed the superintendency of Spencer Academy, a boarding school for the Choctaw Indians located in the vicinity of Fort Towson, Oklahoma, on behalf of the Presbyterian Church. With adversities and trials pressing heavily on him, staff disunity at the zenith, and his health deteriorating, Ramsay decided to submit his resignation in March 1849. In June, he welcomed the news that his successor was on the way. However, before he could leave, both his wife and infant son died. He blamed his troubles upon his actions and refused to pray for a period.[5]

During the succeeding five years, Ramsey engaged himself in teaching, and as his health permitted him, also in preaching as a stated supply. The final two years before taking the pastorate at New Monmouth Church in 1853 he spent in the borders of New Providence Church in Rockbridge County, Virginia. He spent this time with the family of Reverend James Morrison, the pastor of New Providence Church and the father-in-law of R. L. Dabney. Afterward, Ramsey represented these two years as the happiest time of his life.[6]

As a consequence of improved health, he received a call in 1853 to serve the Presbyterian Church at New Monmouth Church in Rockbridge County, Virginia, the first year as their Stated Supply.[7] They installed him as their pastor on July 23, 1854,[8] and he spent four years of dedicated pastoral labor there among a compassionate people, harvesting valuable and plentiful rewards into eternal life.[9]

His election as the pastor of the First Church in Lynchburg, Virginia, transpired on July 17, 1858, with a salary of $1,200. He consented to the call “under a sense of public duty,” by the pressure of members of the Synod along with the Church in Lynchburg. He arrived in August 1858 and was installed on November 21, 1858. At his installation service, Dr. J. M. B. Atkinson presided and delivered the charge to the new pastor and Dr. R. L. Dabney preached and provided the mandate to the congregation.[10]

In May 1867, Ramsey’s health, fragile since 1849, had diminished to the point where the Session felt they needed to elect an “Assistant Pastor, E. M. Barnett, a licentiate of Lexington Presbytery,” for $400 per year salary and board. At the March 1869 meeting of Presbytery, discussion was held for First Church to establish a school on First Church’s school property next to the Church, where a boarding school for “young ladies” had formerly been run. Furthermore, the hope was that the church’s fragile pastor, no longer able to carry on the work of pastoring a congregation, might be able, with the help of his wife, to re-establish the school. On May 31, 1869, a joint board meeting passed a resolution to establish a female Presbyterian School in Lynchburg and to bring it before the Church and congregation. That meeting was June 9, 1869, and the decision was made that this “school should at once be established…under the supervision and control of the pastor, and…to ascertain what each would contribute to Dr. Ramsey’s salary next year,…for Dr. Ramsey’s use as a school.”[11] Shortly after that, Dr. Ramsey and his family, together with a few boarders who lived with the family, moved to the house next to the Church, where a day school was located for the next eighteen or nineteen years. In 1870, employed entirely in the school which supported him, he resigned his pastorate, “after repeated solicitations from himself” that he be allowed to do so. These solicitations had possibly begun in 1867, or even in 1866. Dr. Ramsey’s resignation was accepted at a congregational meeting on April 24, 1870, because of his “continued physical infirmities.” The resolutions adopted at that meeting reflected the love and admiration his congregation felt for their respected pastor.[12]

James Beverlin Ramsey lived for a little over a year longer, his death occurring on July 23, 1871, a Sabbath morning.[13] Major T. J. Kirkpatrick spoke of his ministry: “Viewed in any light, Dr. Ramsey was an extraordinary man. Gifted by nature with a great mind…and a rare power of concentration, he had from very early life devoted himself to the pursuit of knowledge…All these great gifts and attainments were, from the beginning dedicated to the service and glory of God. His love of Christ was the passion of his soul…For him to live was Christ – in motive, work, joy, and object. He was very like his blessed Master in humility, courage, honesty, benevolence and heavenly-mindedness. As a preacher, he was eminently earnest and instructive…As a pastor, he was watchful, faithful and tender…As a ruler in the Church, he was a wonderfully wise man…He had deep insight into human nature and great common sense.”[14] Charles Hodge concludes his brief biographical sketch with these words: “Had a longer life and more comfortable health been known by him, larger and richer fruits would no doubt have been harvested from his particular culture and ripe religious experience. His name stands worthy to be had ‘in everlasting remembrance.’”[15]

Notes on his sermons and writings[16]:

·       The Elders That Rule Well: A Sermon, Preached at Lexington, VA., April 4, 1855, At The Opening Of Lexington Presbytery, And Published at Its Request. Lexington [Va.]: Smith & Fuller, 1855. This sermon was on I Timothy 5:17, “Let the elders that rule well be considered worthy of double honor.”

·       The Deaconship: an essay, prepared by appointment of the Synod of Virginia, read before that body at their meeting at Charlottesville, on the 3rd of November, 1858, and published at their request. Richmond, Va.: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1858. Published in the Southern Presbyterian Review, 12.1 (April 1859), 1-24. In this essay Ramsey says that the great leading functions of the church may be regarded as four: the aggressive, the teaching, the governing and the charitable. The first three are for the elder and the fourth for the deacon.

·       God's way in the sanctuary remembered; a sermon preached Dec. 23d, 1860, before the congregations of the 1st and 2d Presbyterian Churches of Lynchburg, assembled together, in commemoration of the first meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, on December 20th, 1560. Lynchburg [Va.]: J.C. Johnson, 1861. The passage for this sermon was Psalm 77:10-13. Ramsey proclaimed that perils are on every side of them, and help can come from God alone. He warns that it is a fearful thing to be found opposed to him, while full of zeal for the country.

·       True eminence founded on holiness. A discourse occasioned by the death of Lieut. Gen. T.J. Jackson, preached in the First Presbyterian Church of Lynchburg, May 24th, 1863. Lynchburg [Va.]: Virginian “Water-power Presses” Print., 1863. Ramsey preached this sermon when Jackson’s body was transported to Lynchburg to be put on the packet boat Marshall to convey him to Lexington. Doctor Ramsey declares in the sermon that although Jackson’s loss seems irreparable to the Church and country especially during the crisis of the day, God has the power to raise others in Jackson’s stead. This sermon was not planned for publication at first. However, there was such an outcry for it by the people that were not able to listen to the sermon preached, that he published it after getting the approval of Jackson’s connections, Jackson’s widow, Jackson’s pastor, and the requests of the people.

·       “How Shall I Live?” Tract no. 176 of the Evangelical Tract Society in Petersburg, VA. In this tract Ramsey uses Philippians 1:17 to talk about how happy Paul was to live in Christ even though his conditions were terrible. Usually attached to the tracgt was a short story entitled, The Strict Search, about being ready at all times to witness to all kinds of people we meet in everyday situations.

·       Follow the saints: a memorial of Samuel McCorkle, a ruling elder for thirty-four years of the First Prsbyterian [sic] Church of Lynchburg, Va., who died August 6th, 1866. An obituary notice and the sermon addressed to the church in improvement of his death. Lynchburg: Virginian Book and Job Office Print., 1867.

·        “The History of the Spiritual Kingdom.” Southern Presbyterian Review 19.4 (October 1868), 465-502. This article was republished posthumously in 1873 with a biography of James Beverlin Ramsey included. In the work, he talks about God restoring his kingdom when every vestige of sin’s dominion is wiped out, and death itself, the last enemy, destroyed, and all things are made new.

·       Questions on Bible doctrine for the closet, the family, and Bible classes. Richmond: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1869.

·       The spiritual kingdom: an exposition of the first eleven chapters of the book of the Revelation. Richmond, Va., Presbyterian committee of publication, 1873.

·       [With Robert Lewis Dabney] Questions on Old Testament history. Lynchburg, Va.: Bell, Browne & Co., 1879.


[1] James B. Ramsey, The Spiritual Kingdom: An Exposition of the First Eleven Chapters of the Book of The Revelation (Richmond: J.S. Peacock & Company, 1873), 3. Charles Hodge wrote the biographical sketch of Ramsey included in this volume.

[2] Selden J. Coffin, Record of the Men of Lafayette: Brief Biographical Sketches of the Alumni of Lafayette College, from Its Organization to the Present Time (Easton, PA: Skinner & Finch, 1879), 9. Lafayette College was located in Easton, Pennsylvania, and was founded in 1826. Reverend George Junkin, D. D. was president fromm 1832-1840.

[3] Ramsey, The Spiritual Kingdom: An Exposition of the First Eleven Chapters of the Book of The Revelation, 3.

[4] Robert Bolton Jr., History of the County of Westchester, from Its First Settlement to the Present Time, Vol. II (New York: Alexander S. Gould, 1848), 268. First Presbyterian Church today is Beck Memorial Presbyterian Church.

[5] W. David Baird, “Spencer Academy, Choctaw Nation, 1842-1900,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma XLV, no. 1 (Spring 1967): 25-43.

[6] Ramsey, The Spiritual Kingdom: An Exposition of the First Eleven Chapters of the Book of The Revelation, 3-4.

[7] Wayne Sparkman, “James Beverlin Ramsey,” PCA Historical Center, May 20, 2013, accessed February 4, 2019, http://www.thisday.pcahistory.org/2013/05/may-20-james-beverlin-ramsey/.

[8] The Home and Foreign Record of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: Publication House, 1854), 257-288.

[9] Ramsey, The Spiritual Kingdom: An Exposition of the First Eleven Chapters of the Book of The Revelation, 3-4.

[10] Mary Elizabeth Kinnier Bratton, Our Goodly Heritage: A History of the First Presbyterian Church of Lynchburg, Virginia, 1815-1940 (Lynchburg, Virginia: J. P. Bell Company, Inc., 1942), 37.

[11] Bratton, Our Goodly Heritage, 53-54.

[12] Bratton, Our Goodly Heritage, 53-54.

[13] Ramsey, The Spiritual Kingdom: An Exposition of the First Eleven Chapters of the Book of The Revelation, 4.

[14] Bratton, Our Goodly Heritage, 55-56.

[15] Ramsey, The Spiritual Kingdom: An Exposition of the First Eleven Chapters of the Book of The Revelation, 4.

[16] For more information, see “James Beverlin Ramsey,” PCA Historical Center, accessed February 14, 2019, http://www.pcahistory.org/HCLibrary/periodicals/spr/bios/ramsey.html

Thomas Smyth and Nineteenth Century Confessionalism

Dr. Miles Smith is an Assistant Professor of Government, History & Criminal Justice at Regent University in Virginia Beach, Virginia. He previously taught at Texas Christian University and Hillsdale College. His teaching generally focuses on the Nineteenth Century United States, but he also enjoys lecturing on Europe and Latin America.


In 1789 Presbyterians in the new United States met and amended the Westminster Confession to more closely align with the American republic’s increasingly disestablishmentarian understanding of church and state. Thomas Jefferson’s violent hatred of the doctrine of the trinity and historical Protestantism dovetailed nicely with the anti-Anglican dispositions of the majority of Virginia’s population, which by 1790 attended Baptist or Methodist churches. Virginia’s Presbyterians, eager to remove the Church of England’s privileged institutional opinion, joined their low-church brethren in supporting disestablishment. Jefferson, however, proved less interested in religious freedom and more interested in attacking Christian orthodoxy. Athanasius’ defense of the Trinity, he told a friend, was “the hocus-pocus phantasm of a god like another Cerberus, with one body and three heads, [and] had its birth and growth in the blood of thousands and thousands of martyrs.” Virginia Presbyterians realized their mistake too late when Jefferson tried to install noted religious skeptic Thomas Cooper as the primary religion professor at the new University of Virginia. The appointment infuriated Presbyterians in Virginia like John Hartwell Cocke and John Holt Rice. The latter used his pulpit and the widely circulated Evangelical Magazine which he edited to mobilize respectable opinion. Jefferson chose another candidate and the controversy died, but Presbyterians subsequently confronted the dilemma of how to reconcile the consequences of their support for culturally and politically driven disestablishment with their belief in robust ecclesiology. Thomas Smyth, minister of Charleston’s Second Presbyterian Church, confronted that tension. At various times and in various works he seemed to take different positions. Smyth’s confessional commitments, however, ultimately anchored his public statements from the pulpit in accordance with the Old School Presbyterian Church, even as he used other writings to reach views that sometimes varied with the Old School orthodoxy.[1]

The maintenance of the appropriate place and power of the church in North American republican society concerned Presbyterians. The interaction of a churchmanship formulated in Europe and in Great Britain and steeped in magisterial and monarchical tradition presented a paradox for the libertarian religious realities of the United States constitution. Many Presbyterians were heavily Americanized, and they sought to make the church both consistent with the Confession and familiar for American churchgoers. The most effective way of perpetuating the church proved to be aggressive catechesis. More importantly, the Westminster Confession bounded the beliefs of American churchmen, even those whose dispositions regarding the civil order and politics were heavily influenced by their personal experiences and societal moments. Such was the case of Smyth, a well-known Irish-born pastor in Charleston, South Carolina.

 In 1840 Thomas Smyth wrote An Ecclesiastical Catechism of the Presbyterian Church. Rev. Smyth ostensibly wrote the catechism for family use, bible classes, and individual members. Yet it served a surprising wider purpose than mere catechesis. Smyth’s work helped preserve a cosmopolitan and transnational understanding of Calvinist churchmanship during a time when Evangelical and low-church innovation challenged the necessity and observance of the sacraments in Protestant worship.

Unlike his fellow South Carolinians John B. Adger or James Henley Thornwell, Smyth did not embrace the notion of high churchmanship as readily or as enthusiastically as a de facto panacea for Reformed churches. Still, he emerged as an intellectual and minister far more willing to maintain Calvinist sacramentalism than the so-called Evangelicals of his day. In many ways this was a struggle for Smyth. Like many Evangelicals he loved the United States’ republican liberties. He also saw republicanism as divinely ordained. Unlike other Old School Presbyterians, he did not see the ecclesiastic and civil realms as entirely separate, although he did not believe that the state should support a specific church. Smyth disagreed especially with the notion put forward by Charles Hodge that the Christian Scriptures did not put forth any natural framework for ecclesiastical structure. He also agreed with Adger and Thornwell that Presbyterianism was divinely instructed but went one step further and argued that nature and human association favored both Presbyterianism and republicanism. He defended his natural law argument for both against those who regarded “any alleged connection between the systems of ecclesiastical and civil government” as merely a “visionary dream, concluding, that because politically distinct and separate, their moral and intellectual relations are equally independent.” To such minds—like Hodge in his own time and John Knox and others historically—he presented “the considerations offered in the following work, and asks for them a candid and impartial hearing.” His “following work” was his Ecclesiastical Republicanism, which explained the history of divinely imprinted republicanism found in both Jewish and Christian civil and ecclesiastic history. Smyth’s arguments stemmed from his extreme dislike of Roman Catholicism and what he called high-churchism, both undoubtedly products of his upbringing in Ulster. Unlike Scotland, Presbyterianism did not enjoy state sanction in Northern Ireland. Smyth developed an intense dislike of Britain’s Anglican monarchy and Ireland’s Roman Catholic prelacy. Interestingly, however, Smyth’s views on slavery remained relatively moderate. [2]

A commitment to confessionalism kept Smyth’s diverse and Americanized notions of the relationship between church and state from impacting his understanding of doctrinal teaching or sacramental observation. His 1841 catechism affirmed the generally accepted understanding among Old School Presbyterians that “the Christian church is entirely separate and distinct from civil society, in its nature, objects, and ends. The church was “spiritual in its nature” and had as its reference the souls of men as its object.” He also affirmed scripture, rather than the natural order, as the source of the church’s government.[3]

Smyth’s writings developed over the course of the 1850s. Historian Brooks Holifield argued that Smyth “flatly repudiated” the notion that religion and politics had nothing to do with each other, a position that placed him at odds with Thornwell and others. Holifield also noted however that Smyth rejected the reformism common among Evangelicals of the era. Smyth confronted a paradox and tension that confronted Reformed churchmen throughout the United States’ history. He resolved it by relying on the confession to guide his ecclesiastic practice, even as he intellectually questioned Old School orthodoxies on the civil order and the church in his writings.[4]


[1] Thomas Jefferson to James Smith, 8 December 1822; Clement Eaton, The Mind of the Old South (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1964), 7.

[2] Thomas Smyth, Ecclesiastical Republicanism (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1843), 7.

[3] Thomas Smyth, An Ecclesiastical Catechism of the Presbyterian Church (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1841), 30-31.

[4] E. Brooks Holifield, "Thomas Smyth: The Social Ideas of a Southern Evangelist," Journal of Presbyterian History 51 (1973): 24-39.


Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the Elder Question

Caleb Cangelosi is an Associate Pastor at Pear Orchard Presbyterian Church in Ridgeland, MS, and the Publisher of Log College Press. He is a graduate of Louisiana State University (BS), Reformed Theological Seminary (MDiv), and Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary (ThM). The following is adapted from his ThM thesis, which was on the controversy over the call to the ministry in the 19th century Southern Presbyterian Church, and can be found here.

Across the country this year in the denomination in which I serve (the Presbyterian Church in America), men will be set apart to the work of gospel ministry by the hands of other ministers (teaching elders) and the hands of ruling elders laid upon them. More than likely, no one present at these ordination services will think it a strange thing for ruling elders to participate in the ordination of a teaching elder. Yet a quick journey back to America in the 1840s reminds us that the PCA ought not to take for granted the practices and privileges of her current polity.

The “elder question” arose in January of 1841, just a few years after the Old School and New School parties within the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America divided in the face of their ecclesiological and theological differences.[1] From that split of 1837 until the outbreak of Civil War when they were rent asunder sectionally, the Old School Presbyterians, like other denominations of that era, were beset by differing opinions in the areas of church polity.[2] The elder controversy began when the Synod of Indiana’s decision to allow ruling elders to take part in the ordination of ministers was challenged in the religious press. Robert Jefferson Breckinridge engaged the issue, contending for the elder’s right to lay hands on ministers being ordained.[3] At the 1841 General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, at which Breckinridge was elected Moderator, the Synod of Indiana put forward an overture recommending that “the question of the office of ruling Elders in ordination, be sent down to the Presbyteries.” The overture was taken up but indefinitely postponed.[4]

In 1842 the matter came back to the Assembly, this time as a communication from the Western District, a presbytery of the Synod of West Tennessee.[5] The Assembly approved the unanimous recommendation of the Committee of Bills and Overtures: that the church should adhere “to the order, and until recently, the uniform practices of our Church on this subject, viz. to allow preaching elders or bishops only to engage in that service [i.e., the ordination of ministers].”[6] The battle began to be waged even more fervently in the lower church courts and in the press, particularly in the Philadelphia Presbyterian, Breckinridge’s Spirit of the XIX Century, and Princeton Seminary’s Biblical Repertory. The West Lexington Presbytery sent a resolution to the 1843 General Assembly, declaring that it believed ruling elders did have the right to unite with ministers in the ordination of ministers. After much debate over several days, the Assembly, by a 138-9 vote, judged, “that neither the Constitution, nor the practice of our Church, authorizes Ruling Elders to impose hands in the ordination of Ministers.” Breckinridge voted with what was a definite minority. At the same Assembly, it was resolved that ruling elders did not have to be present to constitute a quorum of a Presbytery, but “any three ministers of a Presbytery, being regularly convened, are a quorum competent to the transaction of all business, agreeably to the provision contained in the Form of Government, Chap. x. Sec. 7.”[7] On this matter the vote was closer, 83-35, but Breckinridge still found himself in the minority.

At this point Breckinridge and James Henley Thornwell began to correspond regularly about the unfolding controversy. Thornwell wrote “The Ruling Elder a Presbyter,” published first in Breckinridge’s Spirit of the XIX Century. That fall, Breckinridge delivered two arguments before the Synod of Philadelphia: “Presbyterian Government not a Hierarchy, but a Commonwealth” and “Presbyterian Ordination not a Charm, but an Act of Government.”[8] These matters came before the 1844 General Assembly by way of an appeal and complaint by Breckinridge against the Synod of Philadelphia, and overtures from the Presbytery of Cincinnati, Transylvania, South Alabama, and East Alabama, asking the Assembly to reverse its 1843 decision. The Assembly judged that Breckinridge’s complaints and appeals were not permitted by the Constitution to come before the Assembly, and answered the overtures in the negative.[9]

With this decision, the matter was settled with respect to the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Breckinridge was content to “rest his case with providence after continual defeat,” and “never again advocated the divine right of elders in the church courts.”[10] But he never changed his mind about the principles involved:

I thought it my duty to submit unreservedly to the decision of the minority of that body, and other Presbyters, both Preaching and Ruling then present, whose opinions on these great questions coincided, in general, with my own; the line of conduct which it behooved us to adopt in such a case. Their judgment was clear and unanimous, that we were bound, in conscience, to adhere to our principles, to promote them as we had opportunity, and faithfully testifying for them, to await the developments of God’s providence.[11]

 What were the principles for which Breckinridge contended in this debate? Underlying his convictions that ruling elders should be allowed to impose hands in the ordination of ministers, and that ruling elders are necessary for a quorum of a Presbytery, were several key beliefs. First, he held that ruling elders were a constituent part of Presbytery, and therefore had a right to be present at Presbytery, and participate in the act of ordination, which was the work of Presbytery.[12] Second, he held that making ruling elders unnecessary for a quorum or ordination struck at the heart of Presbyterian church government. The representative nature of ruling elders, writes Breckinridge

is an essential element of Presbyterianism: destroy this, and the entire system perished. This is the element that distinctly separates it from prelacy on the one hand, and congregationalism on the other. Admit the principle that the ministry may, without the presence of any representative of God's people, transact the business of the people, and you lay our glorious system of representative republicanism in ruins: and over those ruins you may easily pave a highway to prelacy and popery.[13]

 There were many more arguments made by Breckinridge, Thornwell, and those on their side, but most fundamentally, their views on the ruling elder flowed out of their belief that Presbyterianism was jure divino, by divine right: “[T]he order of [Christ’s] house is not a question left to us – but it is one distinctly settled by himself.” Jesus had prescribed the government for his church:

The Lord Jesus Christ is King in Zion; the whole model and working of his kingdom are matters of revelation; the complete execution of the mission of his church is absolutely impossible, until she puts away all carnal devices and puts on the whole armour of light; and we have no more warrant from God to make a church government for him and in his name – than to make any other part of his religion. It is idle to talk about church government being jure divino, in its great principles and not in its details; or as they say, in the abstract and not in the concrete. The truth is, it is both: for not only are the great principles laid down for us, but the officers and courts are named; the nature and duties of the one, the qualifications, vocation, and powers of the other, are set forth; the relations of all the parts to each other and to the whole are precisely set forth. A government, in general – the kind of government in particular – the officers and courts in special – their duties and powers in detail: this is what God has set before us, by revelation, for the Christian church.[14]

 From these principles, Breckinridge argued for the rights of ruling elders.

Ironically, it would be the Southern Presbyterian Church after the Civil War which would finally codify the position of Breckinridge on ruling elders. This issue no longer agitates the church, as the Presbyterian churches in America have essentially settled the question satisfactorily for themselves in a variety of directions. Yet engaging the debate of the 1840s is important and helpful as we continue to think through the role of ruling elders in the life of the church and the true nature of Presbyterianism.


               1. For more on the Old School – New School split, see George Marsden, The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience: A Case Study of Thought and Theology in Nineteenth-Century America (1970; repr., Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2003); James Wood, Old and New Theology (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1845); and Peter J. Wallace, “The Bond of Union: The Old School Presbyterian Church and the American Nation, 1837-1861” (PhD diss., Notre Dame University, 2004), accessed February 1, 2018, http://www.peterwallace.org/dissertation.

                2. See Ernest Trice Thompson, Presbyterians in the South (Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1963), 1:510ff.; Luder G. Whitlock, Jr., “Elders and Ecclesiology in the Thought of James Henley Thornwell,” Westminster Theological Journal 37, no. 1 (Fall 1974): 45. For Breckinridge’s views on the connection between the division of 1837 and the ruling elder controversy, see Edgar Caldwell Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” Affirmation 6, no. 2 (Fall 1993): 73-74.

                3. Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” 76. Mayse opines, “Although it would not be fair to call the elder question ‘a controversy of Breckinridge’s personal creation’ [quoting Elwyn Smith, The Presbyterian Minister in American Culture, 176], it is certain that the dispute would never have achieved its prominence and bitterness had the Baltimore pastor decided to confine his polemical attacks to the Catholics and abolitionists.” Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” 76. For more on the ruling elder controversy, see Benjamin Morgan Palmer, The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell (1875; repr., Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1986), 251ff.; Whitlock, “Elders and Ecclesiology in the Thought of James Henley Thornwell,” 44-56; Thompson, Presbyterians in the South, 1:516ff.; Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” 73-88; Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge: American Presbyterian Controversialist” (ThD diss., Union Theological Seminary, 1974), 356-439; John Lloyd Vance, “The Ecclesiology of James Henley Thornwell” (PhD diss., Drew University, 1990), 194-208; and Mark R. Brown, ed., Order in the Offices (Duncansville, PA: Classic Presbyterian Government Resources, 1993), especially the article therein by Iain Murray, “Ruling Elders – a Sketch of a Controversy,” 157-168.

                4. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: The Stated Clerk, 1841), 447. Mayse writes that Breckinridge was not in the Assembly hall when these votes were taken, but when he returned he was able to convince the members to reconsider their vote. Due to time constraints, the issue was referred to the next Assembly. Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” 77. I was not able to find these actions in the Minutes of the Assembly, but it is possible that Breckinridge mentions them in the newspaper articles he published during the controversy, to which I do not have access. Cf. Palmer, Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell, 254.

                5. Whitlock, “Elders and Ecclesiology in the Thought of James Henley Thornwell,” 46; Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” 77-80.

                6. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: The Stated Clerk, 1842), 16.

                7. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: The Stated Clerk, 1843), 183, 196, cf. 190.

  8. This article can be found in Thornwell, Collected Writings (1873; repr., Vestavia Hills, AL: Solid Ground Christian Books, 2004), 4:115ff. Breckinridge’s addresses were subsequently published together with a sermon that catalyzed another controversy over the call to the ministry, “The Christian Pastor, One of the Ascension Gifts of Christ.” See Robert Nickols Watkin, “The Forming of the Southern Presbyterian Minister: From Calvin to the American Civil War” (PhD diss., Vanderbilt University, 1969), 374n30. For the correspondence between Thornwell and Breckinridge, see Palmer, Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell, 251ff. Charles Hodge of Princeton and Thomas Smyth of Charleston, SC, were two primary opponents of the position of Thornwell and Breckinridge. Hodge’s arguments can be found, among other places, in “The Rights of Ruling Elders,” Princeton Review 15, No. 2 (April 1843), 313ff.; and What is Presbyterianism? (Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1855). Smyth’s writing on the subject are found in Complete Works of Rev. Thomas Smyth, D.D., Volume 4 (Columbia, SC: The R. L. Bryan Company, 1908).

                9. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: The Stated Clerk, 1844), 352, 362, 364, 366, 370-371.

                10. Mayse, “Robert Jefferson Breckinridge and the ‘Elder Question’,” 83.

                11. Robert J. Breckinridge, The Christian Pastor, One of the Ascension Gifts of Christ (Baltimore, MD: D. Owen & Son, 1845), 4. Through this sermon, and the footnotes in the published edition, Breckinridge gives his commentary on the way the controversy played out. He was clearly upset at how the Princeton Seminary party in particular treated him, and had little patience for their arguments.

                12. Breckinridge, The Christian Pastor, 38n19. See also the protest written by Breckinridge in Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: The Stated Clerk, 1843), 199.

                13. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (Philadelphia: The Stated Clerk, 1843), 199-200. Emphasis his.

                14. Breckinridge, The Christian Pastor, 43-44.


John Williamson Nevin and the Problem of American Evangelicalism: A Brief Review of The Anxious Bench

Dr. Miles Smith is an Assistant Professor of Government, History & Criminal Justice at Regent University in Virginia Beach, Virginia. He previously taught at Texas Christian University and Hillsdale College. His teaching generally focuses on the Nineteenth Century United States, but he also enjoys lecturing on Europe and Latin America.


Very few ministers in the Presbyterian Church circa 2019 know the writings of John Williamson Nevin. Even fewer quote him on a given Sunday morning. But in the Nineteenth Century anyone in ministry in a Reformed church in North America not only knew who Nevin was, but most likely had a strong opinion on his writing. Nevin was a Presbyterian divine and intellectual who challenged the prevailing excesses among so-called Evangelicals and revivalists active during the early Republic. His 1846 work The Mystical Presence urged a return to Calvinist views on the Eucharist and challenged the Zwinglian understanding of the Lord’s Supper held by some prominent Presbyterians of the era, such as his one-time colleague Charles Hodge. Arguably his most important work, The Anxious Bench (1843), denounced the demagoguery, emotional coercion, and doctrinal deviation associated with revivalist movements that occurred during the so-called Second Great Awakening.[1]

Nevin studied at Union College in New York and received his divinity training at Princeton Seminary, then closely affiliated with the College of New Jersey (modern day Princeton University). From 1830 to 1840, Nevin taught at what is now Pittsburgh Seminary. During his time in Pittsburgh, Nevin read the works of August Neander and other Protestant scholars. Nevin worried about the increased Puritan and Wesleyan influence on Reformed churchmanship and sacramentalism. Nevin especially saw appeals to emotion in order to gain dubious immediate “conversions” as a direct assault of the work of the Holy Spirit and the sacraments more generally. Inherent in the so-called Evangelicalism of the day was a penchant for showmanship and celebrity that conflated enthusiasm and passion with entire working of the third Person of the Trinity. Holy scripture and its un-inspired but ecclesiastically authoritative auxiliaries, creeds, confessions, and catechisms, should form the core of Protestant churchmanship, not emotionally driven opinions or narratives that hinged on no other authority than that of the speaker’s enthusiasm. “Who shall assure us,” asked Nevin, that every conversion made at a revival meeting—wherein many of the supposed convertees never went again to church or exhibited marks of piety—was  “to be regarded with confidence, as the genuine fruit of religion? It is marvelous credulity, to take every excitement in the name of religion, for the work of God’s Spirit.” Emotionally driven faux-conversions places enormous demands the charity of devout Christians when they were “asked to accept in mass, as true and solid, the wholesale conversions that are made in this way.”[2]

During the ten years that followed Nevin’s move to Pittsburgh, he spent much of his intellectual and ministerial energy on reorienting Reformed churches towards their historic fraternity with Lutherans and other sacramental Protestants. Nevin joined the German Reformed Church in 1840 in order to take a position as a professor at Mercersburg Seminary, but he remained well within the world of Reformed theologians. Presbyterians and the continental Reformed churches, Nevin knew, shared more with Lutherans than they did with New England’s Puritan Congregationalists and Wesleyans. Their revivalist and doctrinal deviations from historic Protestant doctrines became more worrisome to Nevin as revival upon revival swept across western New York and Pennsylvania. In their wakes they left a trail of heterodoxy and new churches such Joseph Smith Jr.’s Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Swedenborgians (precursors to Oneness Pentecostals), Millerites, Shakers, and other groups. Religious cacophony and religious demagoguery, a sort of “Evangelical” Führerprinzip, emerged wherein churches were driven by popularity and raw human will power.

Nevin and other orthodox sacramental Protestants watched in horror as word and sacrament were replaced by enthusiasm and successive “new measures” utilized by revivalist ministers to gain converts. Inevitably the newness of the measures would wear off, and revivalists would try and replicate the success of the preceding measures with even newer and often more outrageous measures, many of which took the form of unhealthy emotional coercion. The listeners who attended the revivals grew, said Nevin, “obtuse to the stirring show,” and felt themselves in “no connection with what is going forward, except as they find an opportunity, from time to time, to fall in with the catch of some familiar revival-song, which they shout forth as boisterously as anybody else.” Nevin argued that “fanaticism has no power to make God’s presence felt. It is wild, presumptuous and profane, where it affects to partake most largely of the power of heaven.” “No wonder,” Nevin wrote exasperatedly, “that the religion which is commenced and carried forward under such auspices, should show itself to be characteristically coarse and gross.” [3]

The Anxious Bench’s warnings went largely unheeded and North American religiosity proved increasingly driven by what Europeans called schwarmerei, or unbridled enthusiasm. Nevin went on to serve as president and professor at what is today Franklin & Marshall College. He authored several other well-received works of theology and church history. He and Philip Schaff collaborated regularly and Nevin encouraged his colleague to complete his magnificent eight-volume History of the Christian Church. A small but welcome reclamation of Nevin by Reformed historians and theologians has occurred in the twenty-first century. Jonathan G. Bonomo’s 2015 Incarnation and Sacrament contextualizes and explains the debate over eucharistic theology between Hodge and Nevin. D.G. Hart’s John Williamson Nevin: High-Church Calvinist is an excellent biography and primer on the robust ecclesiology that typified Nevin and other Reformed clerics in the United States during the Nineteenth Century. Bonomo and Hart’s works, one hopes, will not be the last on this useful and fascinating figure in the history of North American Reformed churches.

[1] For more on the eucharistic controversy see Linden J. Debie, Coena Mystica: Debating Reformed Eucharistic Theology (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2013); George W. Richards, “The Mercersburg Theology: Its Purpose and Principles,” Church History 20 (1951): 42-55; Richard E. Wentz, John Williamson Nevin, American Theologian (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

[2] John Williamson Nevin, The Anxious Bench (Chambersburg: The German Reformed Church, 1844), 35-36.

[3] Nevin, The Anxious Bench, 109-110.