Samuel Davies taught us to 'live not for yourselves'

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During his final illness, Samuel Davies selected the text upon which Samuel Finley would preach Davies’ funeral sermon: “For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself. For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; and whether we die, we die unto the Lord: whether we live therefore, or die, we are the Lord’s” (Rom. 14:7-8). This was done by Finley under the title The Dis-Interested and Devoted Christian [1761]. George Pilcher says that this Scripture text “expressed the belief that had governed [Davies’] life” (Samuel Davies: Apostle of Dissent in Colonial Virginia, p. 187).

Davies was a man who loved his family and his studies, and would have contented himself to serve his flock in rural central Virginia for the rest of his days. In 1751, he wrote to his brother-in-law, John Holt:

I can tell you that I am as happy as perhaps the Creation can make me: I enjoy all the Necessaries and most of the Conveniences of Life; I have a peaceful Study, as a Refuge from the Hurries and the Noise of the World around me; the venerable Dead are waiting in my Library to entertain me, and relieve me from the Nonsense of surviving Mortals; I am peculiarly happy in my Relations, and Providence does not affect me by afflicting them. In short, I have all a moderate Heart can wish; and I very much question if there be a more calm, placid and contented Mortal in Virginia.

But though Davies, with characteristic humility, thought himself unworthy to take up calls to serve the College of New Jersey (Princeton) by fundraising in Europe or in the capacity of President, and resisted those calls strenuously, he was not deaf to the call of duty when pressed upon him by others. He himself preached war sermons during the French and Indian War in which he told others: “FOLLOW THE PATH OF DUTY wherever it leads you” (Religion and Patriotism: The Constituents of a Good Soldier [1756]).

As President of Princeton — which he spoke of as “a Seminary of Loyalty, as well as Learning, and Piety: a Nursery for the State, as well as the Church” (A Sermon Delivered at Nassau-Hall, January 14, 1761, on the Death of His Late Majesty King George II [1761]) — Davies delivered a discourse on the importance of cultivating a public spirit which is reminiscent of wisdom from Thomas à Kempis, who said “Never be entirely idle; but either be reading, or writing, or praying, or meditating, or endeavoring something for the public good” (The Imitation of Christ). Let us give heed to Davies:

Whatever, I say, be your Place, permit me, my dear Youth, to inculcate upon you this important instruction, IMBIBE AND CHERISH A PUBLIC SPIRIT. Serve your Generation. Live not for yourselves, but the Publick. Be the Servants of the Church; the servants of your Country; the Servants of all. Extend the Arms of your Benevolence to embrace your Friends, your Neighbors, your Country, your Nation, the whole Race of mankind, even your Enemies. Let it be the vigorous unremitted Effort of your whole Life, to leave the World wiser and better than you found it at your Entrance (Religion and Public Spirit: A Valedictory Address to the Senior Class, Delivered in Nassau-Hall, September 21, 1760 [1762]).

Samuel Davies did much good in the span of 37 years on this earth. He left a legacy of godliness which continues to encourage and inspire. May his “important instruction” to the students of his beloved college ring in our ears today: “Leave the world wiser and better than you found it at your entrance.”

Lost Treasures of American Presbyterianism

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What light would be thrown upon the dim past if we had to-day the diaries of Francis Makemie, Jedediah Andrews, Francis Doughty, Richard Denton or Matthew Hill. Had we the catechism which Makemie published, but which has absolutely disappeared, we should understand fully his attitude toward the Quakers and why he came into conflict with George Keith. Had we all the discussions and the letters which must have been written about the famous Adopting Act of 1729, how many precious hours of time in later years would have saved, misunderstanding avoided and the Church spared much restlessness and bad feeling. Could we but have the lost minutes of the Presbytery of Philadelphia from 1717 to 1733, the action of that body and the opinion of its members on the Adopting Act and other similar matters, might have proved mouth and wisdom to some of the men of later generations. Would it be more than the mere gratifying of an idle curiosity if we knew the reasons why the Presbyterians did not have a conference with the Baptists after having requested it and with whom they had worshipped in the Barbadoes Store, Philadelphia, from 1695 to 1698? If we could but see the lost page or pages of the first minutes of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, it would settle for the Church the question of time and perhaps the question as to the declaration of doctrine and the attitude of the early fathers to the Confession of Faith. If we could but read 'the loving letters from Domine Frelinghuysen,' it might reveal to us the secret as to the change in the ministry of Gilbert Tennent to a more evangelistic style of preaching. -- William L. Ledwith, "The Record of Fifty Years, 1852-1902: Historical Sketch of the Presbyterian Historical Society" in Journal of Presbyterian History, Vol. 1, No. 6, p. 404

The Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia was built to preserve the records and artifacts of Presbyterian history, and provides climate-controlled record storage services, along with fire protection, and other document preservation resources.

The Presbyterian Historical Society in Philadelphia was built to preserve the records and artifacts of Presbyterian history, and provides climate-controlled record storage services, along with fire protection, and other document preservation resources.

At Log College Press, we delight in bringing old, dusty, classic American Presbyterian works into the light of day again for a new generation to appreciate. But there are some works that are simply lost to history, as painful for we bibliophiles to admit, and as William Ledwith has shown us already (the Presbyterian Historical Society was founded mainly to protect and preserve the treasures of Presbyterian church history). There are works known to exist at one time that have simply disappeared from the stage before the advent of digital imaging. These include diaries, Presbytery minutes, letters, and even entire books.A few examples which pertain to Log College Press authors:

The first two pages of the first Presbytery’s Minute Book, which describe the first meeting, are lost to history. Pictured above is page 3 of the Minute Book, which gives an account of the ordination of John Boyd.

The first two pages of the first Presbytery’s Minute Book, which describe the first meeting, are lost to history. Pictured above is page 3 of the Minute Book, which gives an account of the ordination of John Boyd.

  • Francis Makemie - Besides the aforementioned Catechism, and his personal Diary, which are both gone, Makemie was accused by Lord Cornbury (who had previously tried him for preaching without a dissenters’ license and lost) with authorship of a 1707 New Jersey publication titled Forget and Forgive — of which Makemie denied authorship — for apparently slanderous remarks directed at him contained within. That book, which would certainly shine light on the ongoing dispute between Makemie (even if he was not the author) and Lord Cornbury, is simply nowhere to be found today.

  • Alexander Craighead - The first American Covenanter minister has left us some remarkable writings, but there are some gaps in his bibliography as well. His 1742 Discourse Concerning the Covenant is, strangely, missing eight pages. Moreover, no copy of an anonymous 1743 pamphlet thought to be published by him has survived after it was condemned by the Synod of Philadelphia for seditious principles. Considering his known published views on resistance to British tyranny, and the influence he had posthumously on the 1775 Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, this missing pamphlet constitutes a rather large gap in our understanding of a fascinating colonial Presbyterian.

  • Titus Basfield - Basfield was a former slave who studied at what is now known as Franklin College, where he was mentored by the college president and Associate Presbyterian pastor John Franklin. John Bingham (later the architect of the 14th Amendment) was a fellow student and close friend of Basfield with whom he carried on a correspondence of 40 years. Bingham's letters to Basfield were destroyed in the 1990s, after John Campbell, a private collector who owned them, died, and his widow threw them away (source: Gerard N. Magliocca, American Founding Son: John Bingham and the Invention of the Fourteenth Amendment, p. 197).

  • Samuel Davies - At one point during the ministry of Davies in Virginia, a writer who took the pen name “Artemas” attempted to “lampoon” Davies by association with alleged excesses related to the Great Awakening, including “a copious flow of tears” and “fainting and trembling” by some under his ministry. Davies responded with a pamphlet titled A Pill For Artemas, which according to a 19th century anonymous writer (“ A Recovered Tract of President Davies,” The Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1837), Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 363-364), “evinced the power of his sarcasm.” Davies sought a middle ground between extremes of lukewarmness and frenzied ecstasy in his hearers as the received the word of truth and responded appropriately. In any case, although the anonymous writer above said he had seen Davies’ pamphlet, George H. Bost wrote in 1942 that “Both pamphlets seem to have been lost” (Ph.D. dissertation titled Samuel Davies: Colonial Revivalist and Champion of Religious Toleration, p. 53).

So while we will continue to hunt for the interesting, rare and special works pertaining to American Presbyterianism to make them available at Log College Press, sadly, there are some things that are apparently lost to history. Would it be wonderful though, to find something thought to be lost in a drawer or attic somewhere? A church historian can dream, can’t they?

A Visit to the Birthplace of Samuel Davies

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When Samuel Davies — the “Apostle to Virginia” — and Gilbert Tennent were chosen as emissaries to raise funds in Europe for the College of New Jersey, Davies left his Hanover, Virginia base in September 1753 to return home to Delaware and parts surrounding, including Philadelphia and New Jersey. An entry from his journal in November 1753, records his sentiments as he traveled through the Delaware Welsh Tract of his boyhood once again:

[W]hen I past by the Places where I had formerly lived, or walked, it gave a solemn Turn to my Mind. Ah! How much I have sinned, wherever I have been! And what solemn Transactions have been between God and my Soul in these my old Walks! Visited two Grave-Yards in my Way, to Solemnize my Mind among the Mansions of the Dead. O how solemn Eternity appeared! How frail and dying the Race of Mortals! And how near my own Dissolution!

Davies was born on November 23, 1723, at what is today known as the Lum’s Mill House in Bear, Delaware. It still stands but is in great disrepair and not open to the public. It is adjacent to the Lums Pond State Park, but beyond the grass being mowed, there is little evidence that it is remembered for its mark on history.

This writer recently toured some of the old stomping grounds that Davies may have visited on that 1753 trip, including his family home. Dewey Roberts — author of Samuel Davies: Apostle to Virginia, a most valuable resource for studying the life of this great saint, particularly, his earlier years — was kind enough to make suggestions for the itinerary.

Samuel Davies’ birthplace - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

Samuel Davies’ birthplace - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

His family was originally associated with the Welsh Tract Baptist Church in New Castle County. I was not able to visit that church on this trip. But I did visit the church that the Davies family joined after departing from the Baptist church: Pencader Presbyterian Church (originally called the Welsh Tract Presbyterian Church). It is now known as Olivet Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), but the name Pencader is still found on the church building itself as well as the at the adjacent cemetery.

Pencader (Olivet) Presbyterian Church (originally founded 1707-1710; present building established in 1852) - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

Pencader (Olivet) Presbyterian Church (originally founded 1707-1710; present building established in 1852) - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

The pastor who embraced the Davies family and counseled them through a challenging transition was likely Thomas Evans, who is buried at this location.

Historical marker - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

Historical marker - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

I also visited other Presbyterian churches in the vicinity, including Head of Christiana — pastored by George Gillespie, who is buried at the cemetery there, as is James Laird Vallandigham, who authored a history of Pencader Presbyterian Church and a history of the New Castle Presbytery.

Head of Christiana Presbyterian Church (founded in 1706-1708; present building established in 1859) - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

Head of Christiana Presbyterian Church (founded in 1706-1708; present building established in 1859) - photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

Finally, I stopped at St. Georges — pastored by WIlliam Robinson (who played such an important role in the life of Samuel Davies and may be the subject of a future post) and Davies’ “close friend” John Rodgers (Samuel Finley preached the ordination sermon for Rodgers here in 1749 and later preached Samuel Davies’ funeral sermon elsewhere in 1761).

St. Georges Presbyterian Church (present building established in 1844)- photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

St. Georges Presbyterian Church (present building established in 1844)- photo credit: R. Andrew Myers

One additional place visited on this trip was the site of the Duck Creek Presbyterian Church. It was a place of significance to Thomas Evans, who conducted the first worship services there in 1733. This was just a year after Martha Davies (Samuel’s mother) was forced out of the Welsh Tract Baptist Church and received spiritual counsel from Rev. Evans (see Dewey Roberts, Samuel Davies: Apostle to Virginia, pp. 31-33).

Smyrna, Delaware

Smyrna, Delaware

Walking around the old historic buildings and graveyards, like Old Mortality (Sir Walter Scott), reminds one that Memento Mori (“Remember, you must die”) is a saying worthy to be impressed upon our thoughts, and pondered from time to time. The historical landmarks are too often in a sad state of decay, and it is greatly to be desired that they be not lost to future generations. But regardless, as Davies would say, it is eternity upon which our eyes of faith must be fixed, and while the footsteps of time have their necessary place, our chief care as we move through this world must be to ensure, by the grace of God, that these “mouldering tabernacles are become everlasting habitations.”

Pattillo's Geographical Catechism

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When John Chavis — the first African-American Presbyterian ordained as a minister in the United States (licensed on November 19, 1800) — engaged in his secondary schooling in preparation for the ministry, he studied first under the Rev. Henry Pattillo (1726-1801), and then at Princeton under the Rev. John Witherspoon (1723-1794), both Scottish-born American patriot Presbyterian ministers and educators. It is to Henry Pattillo that we look today — who himself studied under the Rev. Samuel Davies — to take note of a memorable work which he produced, which is thought to have made a deep impression upon Chavis, who also was a patriot who served in the American War of Independence (as did Pattillo; Witherspoon signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation).

That notable work was titled A Geographical Catechism (1796), the first textbook ever published in North Carolina. It constitutes an attempt to educate farmers and young people about the world around them, including the celestial world. Further, it introduced its readers to world history and culture, taking particular note of the newly-formed United States of America, and the other major nations of the earth. This overview, given in question-and-answer format, was produced with an explicitly Christian worldview, aiming to inculcate in its readers a desire to glorify the God of creation, providence and redemption.

Pattillo, Henry, A Geographical Catechism Title Page cropped.jpg

The scientific descriptions given by Pattillo for the world of nature reflect the current understanding of his day. Four continents are described, as well as seven planets in the solar system (the furthest away from the sun being known to Pattillo as “the Georgian Planet” — or, as we know it, Uranus).

His praise of the United States is high indeed. Answering Q. 104, he describes the United States as a “terrestrial paradise,” sketching its history from the arrival of Christopher Columbus, but focusing chiefly on the late conflict with England, summing his thoughts thus:

A general treaty took place, in which Britain acknowledged the independence of the American States, which the other nations of Europe did soon after. A constitution was formed by the united wisdom of our country, which after some time was adopted by all the states. Under its happy influence they have flourished ever since in peace, prosperity and reputation and the population of our western territory has never been equaled since the first ages of the world.

O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint Americanos! Virgil

Pattillo’s description of comets in space proceeds — encouraging his readers to follow this example — from the scientific to the doxological.

No part of God's works that have come to my knowledge, astonish me more than the infinite wisdom, foreknowledge and divine art of the Deity, in throwing from his creating hand more than 40 enormous globes, whose paths oppose and cross each other for thousands of years, in every direction, without the rapid fiery comet once touching or interrupting a single planet? which must have frequently happened had the planet been in that part of its orbit in which it was before the cornet passed, or would be soon after. Adore ye sons of men, and in humble gratitude acknowledge the power, wisdom and goodness of GOD! If he is thus tremendous in one of his works, who can stand when HE ariseth? Make peace with him whilst thou art in the way; for he is as gracious to returning penitents, as he will be terrible to the sinner in his crimes (A. 72).

Descending from the heavenly realm to the terrestrial, Pattillo still focuses the attention of the reader on the God who made all:

Q. 90. Having surveyed wonders sufficient to bring an infidel to his knees, and to animate the devotion of the most devout; may we now return to Geography, if any thing on our globe be worthy of notice, after the more illustrious scenes we have passed through?

A. It is true our world is but a speck in the creation, and yet it has wonders of power and wisdom belonging to it, sufficient to employ the deepest researches of the wisest of men, and fresh wonders discovered every day; and it has one thing to glory in, above all the creation of GOD.

Q. 91. What is that pray?

A. It is that great gospel truth, GOD so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. A world thus redeemed, is well worthy of our notice. We return then to Geography, or that description of countries, cities, and seaports, without the knowledge of which, no person can read a news-paper, nor follow a traveller by sea or land.

Chavis’ biographer states that it was “the Presbyterian view” indeed “that all knowledge is a part of God’s providence” (Helen Chavis Othow, John Chavis: African American Patriot, Preacher, Teacher, and Mentor (1763-1838), p. 39). By summarizing the basic knowledge of the world of creation and providence for his students, including John Chavis, Pattillo made an enormous contribution to the godly education of students in North Carolina and Virginia. Chavis is an important part of that legacy, because it reflects a desire on the part of the teacher to have all of his students, of whatever skin color, in the words of the great astronomer Johannes Kepler, “think God’s thoughts after Him.”

From chopping down cherry trees to roaring lions: How Pastor Weems' tall tales linger today

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It is well known that the source of the apocryphal story of young George Washington felling his father’s cherry tree with an axe is none other than “Parson” Mason Locke Weems (1759-1825), a Protestant Episcopal minister, traveling book agent and biographer, who in 1800 wrote The Life of Washington, the first time that story was told. The moral of the cherry tree story is that “I cannot tell a lie,” and there is a certain irony in that the story was entirely invented, assuming the best of motives, to promote truth-telling.

Another tale has been told over the past two centuries regarding Samuel Davies that has its origin in the 1816 edition of Sermons on Important Subject by the Late Reverend and Pious Samuel Davies . . . , "Printed for Mason L. Weems" in Baltimore. Nowhere prior to this publication did the story appear, but it was told there, and repeated by William Hill in correspondence to Albert Barnes, whose memoir of Samuel Davies appeared in the 1841 of his Sermons. It is further repeated by Gardiner Spring in The Power of the Pulpit (1848).

The story as told by Hill / Barnes concerns the trip made by Davies to England in 1753:

The circumstance alluded to is this - that his fame was a pulpit orator was so great in London, that some noblemen who had heard him, mentioned in the presence of King George II., that there was a very distinguished dissenting preacher in London from the colony of Virginia, who was attracting great notice, and drawing after him very crowded audiences; upon which the King expressed a strong desire to hear him, and his chaplain invited him to preach in his chapel. Mr. Davies is said to have complied, and preached before a splendid audience, composed of the royal family, and many of the nobility of the realm. It is further said, that while Mr. D. was preaching, the King was seen speaking at different times to those around him. Mr. Davies observed it, and was shocked at what he thought was irreverence in the house of God, that was utterly inexcusable in one whose example might have such influence. After pausing and looking sternly in that direction several times, the preacher proceeded in his discourse, when the same offensive behavior was still observed. The American dissenter is said then to have exclaimed, ‘When the lion roars, the beasts of the forest all tremble; and when King Jesus speaks, the princes of the earth should keep silence.’ The King is said to have given a significant, but courteous bow to the preacher, and sat very composedly and reverently during the rest of the service. If this be a correct statement of the fact that took place, it speaks louder than anything that has yet been said in praise of Mr. Davies’ promptness, intrepidity, and solemn self-possession while engaged in delivering God’s messages to his perishing fellow-men. Whatever authority Mr. Davies’ friends had for narrating this story is not now known, but it was universally believed among them to have occurred.

The explanation given of this strange affair is this. The King is said to have been so enraptured with Mr. Davies’ solemn and impressive manner and eloquence, that he was constrained repeatedly to express his astonishment and applause to those around him, and felt anything else but irreverence upon the occasion. He was so delighted with him, that he sent him an invitation to call upon him at a given time, which interview unquestionably did take place, and was repeated more than once; after which, and the explanations which were given, Mr. Davies was delighted with his Majesty, and not only received a handsome donation from him for the college whose cause he was advocating, but was led to form a most exalted opinion of George II. ever afterwards, as may be learned from a funeral sermon he preached upon his death and character.

The same story told seven years later by Gardiner Spring varies in some details:

That distinguished American preacher, Samuel Davies, then the President of the College of New Jersey, when on a visit to England, in behalf of the college, was invited to preach before George III. His youthful queen was sitting by his side; and so enchanted were they by the preacher’s eloquence, that the king expressed his admiration in no measured terms, and so audibly and rudely as to draw the attention of the audience, and interrupt the service. The preacher made a sudden and solemn pause in his discourse, looked around the audience, and fixing his piercing eye upon England noisy monarch, said, “When the lion roars, the beasts of the forest tremble; when Jehovah speaks, let the kings of the earth keep silence before him!: He was God’s messenger; he feared not man, who is a worm. It is not God’s ministers who tremble amid such scenes.

It was pointed out in a review of Spring’s The Power of the Pulpit which appeared in The New Englander (October 1848, p. 502) that errors abound in the telling, both by Hill / Barnes, and by Spring.

Now this anecdote, minute as it is in its details, is utterly unsustained by evidence, and in all probability is utterly untrue. It was originally written and published by the well-known “parson Weems,'‘ who was famous not only for telling, but coining good stories. The original journal of Davies, which he kept while in England, is still in existence; and in that he has given the occurrences of each day while he was on this mission to that country in behalf of the College of New Jersey. He states distinctly when and where he preached while abroad; and he does not say a single word about having preached before the king: nor does he allude to the king’s having made a donation to the college, though he carefully records every donation he received, and from whom he received it. And so far from preaching before the king, Davies states in his journal, that by the advice of his friends in England, he kept the object of his mission concealed from the knowledge of the British government, lest the charter of the college should be revoked….Such facts [sourced, it is acknowledged, by President James Carnahan of the College of New Jersey] render it morally certain that the story, which Weems first published in an edition of Davies’ sermons, is a sheer fabrication, having not the least foundation in truth.

In this [Spring’s] version of the anecdote, there are two mistakes in dates; for Davies was appointed to go to England in 1753, which was six years before he was chosen president of the College of New Jersey; and George III. did not come to the throne until 1760, which was several years after his return to this country.

The 1848 Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society (Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 127-130) make the same point that Davies’ journal while abroad in England contains no such account of preaching before the King, much less rebuking the King.

In view of these facts, recorded in President Davies’ journal more fully than are here stated, can any one believe that such an occurrence as is related in the memoir ever took place?

It may be inquired, how did the story if it be not true, get abroad in the world? Dr. Carnahan would not affirm who invented it, Dr. Thomas Gibbons, of London, the intimate friend of President Davies, with whom he had daily intercourse while in London, who published a funeral sermon on the death of Davies and who also superintended the first edition of Davies’ sermons in 1765, did not originate the story; nor did Dr. Samuel Finley who also published a funeral sermon on the death of President Davies. The anecdote is not mentioned in an obituary notice by the Reverend David Bostwick, prefixed to Davies’ sermons published in New York, 1792; nor did the late venerable Dr. Ashbel Green in his notes respecting the College of New Jersey, although acquainted with the story, deem it worthy of credence.

The most probable account of its origin is, that an agent employed in the Southern States some forty years ago in selling an edition of Davies’ sermons invented and circulated the story; and as it was not called in question at the time, it has recently passed for true history. So far as the reputation of President Davies as a Christian and a faithful and eloquent preacher is concerned the anecdote is of little importance. But if it be received as true it gives us an erroneous view of the spirit of the times and of the treatment of the Colonial dissenters by the civil authorities in England.

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A Children's Sermon by Samuel Davies

Samuel Davies once preached a sermon to youth in 1758 (260 years ago) titled Little Children Invited to Jesus Christ (reprinted by the American Tract Society in 1826). It was an argument not to delay but to come to Jesus, and to embrace him by faith.

In this sermon, Davies clarifies what he means by “coming to Christ” (based on this text: “But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little Children to come unto me, and forbid them not: For of such is the Kingdom of God,” Mark 10:14). The truths he lays out in this sermon are timeless and applicable to all, young or old.

You have a right, and that it is your duty, to Come to Jesus. Therefore, oh! come to him: come to him this very day, without delay.

But here, I hope, you start a very proper question, "What is it to come to Christ? or in what sense are we to understand this phrase, as it may be applied to us now, since he is removed from our world?"

Coming to Christ, in my text, did indeed mean a bodily motion to him: and this was practicable, while he tabernacled in flesh among men. But even then, it signified much more. It signified coming to him as a divine teacher, to receive instruction; as a Saviour, to obtain eternal life; and as the only Mediator, through whom guilty sinners might have access to God. It signified a motion of soul towards him, Correspondent to the bodily motion of coming: a motion of the desires, a flight of tender affections towards him. In this view it is still practicable to come to Christ; and it is our duty in these latter days, as much as it was theirs who were his contemporaries upon earth. It is in this view, I now urge it upon you: and in this view, it includes: the following particulars.

1. A clear conviction of sin; of sin in heart, in word, and in practice; of sin against knowledge; against alluring mercies and fatherly corrections; of sin against all the strongest incitements to duty. Without such a conviction of sin, it is impossible that you should fly to him as a Saviour: for he "came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."

2. An affecting sense of danger, upon the account of sin. You cannot fly to him as a Saviour, till you see your extreme need of salvation; and you cannot see your need of salvation, till you are sensible of your danger; sensible that you are every moment liable to everlasting condemnation, and have no title at all to the divine favour.

3. A humbling sense of your own inability to save yourselves by the merit of your own best endeavours. I do not mean, that you should neglect your best endeavours; or that you should not exert your utmost strength in every good work, and in the earnest use of all the means of grace: for you never will come to Christ, till you are brought to this. But I mean, that while you are doing your utmost, you must be sensible, that you do not deserve any favour at all from God on that account, and that you neither can, nor do make any atonement for your sins by all your good works; but that God may justly condemn you notwithstanding. Till you are sensible of this, you will weary yourselves in vain, in idle self righteous efforts to perform the work which Jesus came into the world to perform, and which he alone was able to do; I mean, to make atonement for your sin, and to work out a righteousness to recommend you to God. It is an eternal truth, that you will never come to Christ as a Saviour, till you are deeply sensible there is no salvation in any other; and particularly that you are not able to save yourselves.

4. An affecting conviction, that Jesus Christ is a glorious, all sufficient and willing Saviour: that his righteousness is perfect, equal to all the demands of the divine law, and sufficient to make satisfaction for all our sins, and procure for us all the blessings of the divine favour; that he is able and willing to "save to the uttermost all that come unto God by him;" and that he is freely offered in the Gospel to all that will accept him, however unworthy, and however great their sins. Indeed it is an eternal truth, that though multitudes perish, it is not for want of a Saviour. There is a Saviour all sufficient, and perfectly willing; and this you must be convinced of before you can come to him.

5. An entire dependence upon his merits alone for acceptance with God. Sensible that you have no merit of your own; on which to depend; and sensible also that Jesus is a sure foundation, on which you may safely venture your eternal all, you must cast all your dependence and fix your entire trust on him. You will as it were hang about him, as the only support for your sinking soul, and plead his righteousness as the only ground of your acceptance with God. This is so unnatural to a proud self-confident sinner, that you must be brought very low indeed, thoroughly mortified and self-emptied, before you will submit to it.

6. A cheerful subjection to him as your ruler; and a voluntary surrender of yourselves to his service. If you come to him at all, it will be as poor penitent rebels, returning to duty with, shame and sorrow, and fully determined never to depart from it more. To embrace Christ as a Saviour, and yet not submit to him as our ruler; to trust in his righteousness, and in the mean time disobey his authority; this is the greatest absurdity, and utterly inconsistent with the wise constitution of the Gospel.

And now, my dear young friends, I hope even your tender minds have some idea what it is to come to Christ. And therefore, when I exhort you to it, you know what I mean. Come then, come to Jesus.

Happy Birthday to Samuel Davies!

The “Apostle of Virginia” — Samuel Davies — was born at Summit Ridge in New Castle County, Delaware, on November 3, 1723. His parents were Thomas and Martha Davies, at the time Baptists of Welsh heritage. As the time of Samuel’s birth drew near, “his mother…had special occasion for the exercise of her faith, in waiting for the answer to her petition” (Appendix, Sermons on Important Subjects, Vol. 1, p. xxxi).

Samuel later told his friend Thomas Gibbons (as reported in Gibbons’ “Divine Conduct Vindicated,” ibid, p. 22): “That he was blessed with a mother whom he might account, without filial vanity or partiality, one of the most eminent saints he knew upon earth. And here, says he, I cannot but mention to my friend an anecdote known but to few; that is, that I am a son of prayer, like my name-sake Samuel the prophet; and my mother called me Samuel because, she said, I have asked him of the Lord, 1 Sam. i.20. This early dedication to God has always been a strong inducement to me to devote myself by my own personal act; and the most important blessing of my life I have looked upon as immediate as immediate answers to the prayer of a pious mother. But, alas! What a degenerate plant am I! How unworthy am I of such a parent and such a birth!”

Samuel Davies would go on to be noted as “the first Presbyterian minister east of the Shenandoah and Appalachian mountains to be lawfully licensed in Virginia…active in promoting the flames of revival throughout Virginia for over a decade…one of the first American ministers to actively labor among the African slaves…he started a mission to the Overhill Cherokees along the western borders of North Carolina and South Carolina…his sermons were among the most popular in print for nearly a century after his death…[and] he was the fourth President of the College of New Jersey (later Princeton College or Princeton University)” (Dewey Roberts, Samuel Davies: Apostle to Virginia, pp. 21-22).

We remember his birth, life, work and legacy on this day, as a man who was indeed a “son of prayer.”